This past summer, while attending WBC in Pennsylvania, we met and played a game with Alex Knight (in case you were wondering the game was Nicaea from Hollandspiele). He is an aspiring new designer, with a quick mind and rapier wit and he is currently finishing up the design for a game that covers the Spanish Revolution and Civil War. The game is called Land and Freedom: The Spanish Revolution and Civil War and will be published by Blue Panther LLC. The game is set to release in early February so I am getting this interview ready so you can get a bit of background about the game as you consider purchasing it.

Grant: First off Alex please tell us a little about yourself. What are your hobbies? What’s your day job?

Alex: I’m a game designer and ESL teacher from Philadelphia, PA. Previously, I was very involved in organizing social justice movements going back to Occupy Wall Street and the anti-Iraq War movement. I enjoy cycling and I made a tournament bracket to decide the best classic Simpsons episode.

Grant: What motivated you to break into game design? What have you enjoyed most about the experience thus far?

Alex: I have always enjoyed board games and since I was a child have tried to design them, but it was only in 2018 that I got serious about the hobby and dedicated myself to it fully. I have enjoyed the community greatly. Game designers and playtesters are some of the nicest, most creative, and most generous people in my experience.

Grant: What designers would you say have influenced your style?

Alex: Land and Freedom has gone through a great deal of metamorphoses since 2018, and the largest evolution came after I played Watergate, the excellent Matthias Cramer game. I also have to credit my local Game Makers Guild, and in particular James Firnhaber (designer of the upcoming game Tesseract) and Jay Vowles (Elements of the Gods) for their patient and brilliant suggestions while playing my prototypes over and over. A special mention goes to Anthony and Nicole Amato for founding GMG Philly and for welcoming me to the space. Anthony tragically passed away in 2021, but he gave me great encouragement and instruction on how to think like a game designer.

Grant: What historical period does Land and Freedom cover?

Alex: It covers the entirety of the Spanish Revolution and Civil War (1936-39). The automated enemy in the game, the Fascists, have three decks corresponding to Years 1, 2, and 3.

Grant: What was your inspiration for this game? Why did you feel drawn to the subject?

Alex: George Orwell’s excellent Homage to Catalonia and Ken Loach’s film Land and Freedom first introduced me to the topic of the Spanish Civil War. Both stories follow an idealistic young person willingly risking their life for the cause of anti-fascism, only to encounter clashing agendas and betrayal from their supposed allies. This “fragile alliance” dilemma of coalition building with people who don’t fully share your views, but who nevertheless are essential to your immediate campaign, is a key aspect of every endeavor for social change, and that’s what I was determined to make a game about.

Grant: What was your design goal with the game?

Alex: My goal was to put players into position to navigate the delicate balancing act between cooperation and competition where you must work together to survive but cannot possibly trust one another. The three players (Anarchist, Communist, and Moderate) are threatened by the Fascist war machine, but even if they manage to hold off the enemy and win the war, only one player will achieve Glory and set the future course for Spain.

Getting that core tension right has been the most difficult and exciting challenge for me in designing this game. The early prototypes were more similar to a typical war game, and the prominence of armies and combat tended to overwhelm the political/revolutionary side. After playing Watergate, which simplifies a complex historical topic into a very high-tension tug-of-war, I got inspired to distill Land and Freedom into two simultaneous tug-of-wars (tugs-of-war?) – the military and the political. In fact, the board is neatly divided in this way with the four Fronts on the left side where players cooperate against the Fascists and the five political Tracks on the right side where players struggle with each other for Initiative. Players must master both sides of the board to win the game.

Grant: What type of research did you do to get the details correct? What one must read source would you recommend?

Alex: In addition to Orwell, a great starting place on this topic is Helen Graham’s The Spanish Civil War: A Very Short Introduction. She manages to squeeze an extremely multi-faceted topic into a very readable 176 pages.

Grant: The game is described as a semi-cooperative card-driven game. What should this tell us about how the game plays?

Alex: In the later versions of the prototype, the challenge for me was to overcome the “semi-cooperative problem.” This is the idea that in a semi-cooperative game, if a player falls behind, they can abandon the cooperative elements of the game and pour all their energy into selfish pursuits (or vice versa), thereby sabotaging the game for everyone. One night in our Game Makers Guild playtest, the mechanic of bag-building was mentioned in passing and this became the idea of the Bag of Glory that solved this problem in a very elegant way. By shifting victory into the results of a bag draw, no player ever has a 0% chance of victory on the competitive side of the game, so cannot risk totally abandoning the cooperative war effort. At the same time, with the odds of winning corresponding roughly to how often a player has held the Initiative throughout the game, players can’t simply neglect the competitive side of the board until the last moment either.

Now a player must weigh the proper balance of cooperation vs. competition every turn, and the cards allow them to affect change to both sides of the board in a multitude of ways. As I’ll show, players face difficult choices over whether to play their cards for their Events or add them to their Tableaus to build for more powerful turns in the future.

Grant: What are the 3 playable factions in the game? How do they cooperate?

Alex: The factions are the three main political movements that were loyal to the Spanish Republic during the Civil War: Anarchists, Communists, and Moderates.

They cooperate by contributing Strength to the four Fronts in order to win the war against the Fascists. Each Front has Fascist Attack tokens or Republican Strength tokens on it. The Attacks have a value of -1, so with each Front beginning the game with 2 Attacks, they all start at -2. If a player adds 3 Strength to one of these Fronts, they replace the 2 Attack tokens with 1 Strength token, indicating a value of +1. A Front rising to +10 means Victory on that Front, which is permanent, while -10 means Defeat on the Front, which is also permanent and potentially game-ending.

If the Madrid Front falls to -10 (Defeat), the game ends immediately and all players lose. Similarly, if any two Fronts fall to Defeat, it’s game over – the war is lost. If players successfully avoid instant loss, the war will be decided on the final turn of the game. If two or more Fronts end the game without Strength on them, meaning a value of zero or negative, the war is lost. The ONLY way for the players to win the war is to survive until the end of Year 3 (1938-39) with at least three Fronts in the positive (+1 or better).

Winning the war then allows precisely one of the players to win the game, as discussed below.

Grant: What asymmetry is built in between the different factions?

Alex: The Anarchists are attempting a social revolution at the same time that the war is going on, and the success of that revolution is measured on the Liberty and Collectivization tracks. The Anarchist player wants to ramp up those two tracks as much as possible because if both are at 6 or higher (on a 0-10 scale), the Revolution is in power and the Anarchists retain Initiative.

The other two factions, Communists and Moderates, must drive down either Liberty or Collectivization below 6 to take the Initiative away from the Anarchists. If they do, Initiative belongs to the player in control of the Government track. So there’s a bit of rock, paper, scissors going on, because a player without control of the Government has no immediate incentive to undercut the Anarchist revolution, as it would just empower a different rival. That said, it may depend on which of your rivals you consider a bigger threat and on your desired turn order for the next turn, because the Initiative player always plays first.

Asymmetry also comes through each faction’s unique deck of 18 cards. The decks should be evenly balanced, but each player has access to unique abilities that aren’t found in the other decks.

Grant: How do the mechanics emphasize the political side of the Spanish Civil War and Revolution?

Alex: There is plenty of room for negotiation, appeals to solidarity, temporary alliances, and betrayal in Land and Freedom. In other words, it’s probably the most accurate simulation of the Republican side of the Spanish Civil War that’s ever been published as a board game. There are quite a lot of other games out there about the SCW, but typically they are 2-player affairs with one player taking the role of the Fascists/Nationalists and the other representing a mythical unified Republic, which never existed. The failure of the different left-wing factions to unify was a major factor in their defeat in the war. This breakdown of trust is an ever-present danger in Land and Freedom.

Grant: What does the board look like? What are the 4 Fronts shown?

Alex: The artist, José Ramón Faura, did a great job with the board as well as the cover art. The map of Spain is on the left side of the board with contours of its mountains around the 4 Fronts, surrounded by subtle background scenes from the war and revolution. The 5 political Tracks are on the right side with colors corresponding to the three factions (black for Anarchists, red for Communists, and purple for Moderates). In the middle are the Morale and Teamwork Bonuses and the available Medallions, explained below. At the bottom of the board is the current Fascist deck and the Fascist cards as they are played. On the bottom-right is the Glory area for the final score.

The four Fronts are: Madrid, Northern, Aragon, and Southern. Each faction has one Front with their faction flag displayed in it, indicating that when this Front is tested by the Fascist cards, that player will be affected whether the test is succeeded or failed. Every turn, the Fascist card will add Attacks to the Fronts and test one Front in particular. If the players strengthen that Front enough to pass the test, there will be a reward; if they fail, there will be a punishment. Those consequences might affect all the players, two players, or just one player, depending on the card and the game state.

Here is an example of a Fascist card, Carlists:

This card adds 5 Attacks to the Northern Front and 1 Attack to the Front closest to Victory (+10). It also reduces Collectivization by 1. Those are the immediate effects.

Then there is the Test, in this case on the Northern Front. The players will take their turns before the Test resolves. If they can secure the Northern Front to a value of -2 or better, they will succeed and the Communist player will receive a Hero point as reward. In addition, every time you succeed on a Test, every player who contributed to that success receives 2 Hero points. If the Test is failed, however, Foreign Aid will reduce by 2, which is terrible for the Moderates. Any Test on the Northern Front is going to be especially important to the Moderates.

Madrid, being the capital, doesn’t belong to any one player, but of course is most important for the sake of winning the war. Fascist Tests on the Madrid Front tend to affect the Initiative player or the player controlling the Government.

Grant: What role do the Liberty, Collectivization, Government, Soviet Support, and Foreign Aid Tracks play in the game? How do these Tracks get changed?

Alex: Each faction has two Tracks that belong to them and determine their success in the game. For the Anarchists, it’s Liberty and Collectivization. For the Communists, it’s Soviet Support and the Government track, which they want to pull to the left. For the Moderates, it’s Foreign Aid and pushing the Government track to the right. In addition, one of each player’s Tracks is dependent on the other, meaning it cannot be maximized without the other Track in a strong state as well. For the Anarchists, Liberty cannot exceed 7 unless Collectivization is at least 8 (how much freedom can exist without freedom at work?). Likewise, the Government track cannot move to either left or right extreme unless Soviet Support or Foreign Aid, respectively, are at least 8. Historically, foreign influence was instrumental in the policies of the Spanish Republic.
Tracks generally range from a value of 0 to 10, and will move up and down as a result of Fascist cards and player turns. A player can use their cards or spend Hero points to move any Track in either direction. Each Track has certain Triggers along it, which take effect immediately and incentivize players to move the Track up or down.

For example, the Soviet Support Track begins at 3, but the Communist player can increase it to hit Triggers that reduce Liberty, strengthen a Front, move the Government to the left, or even let them claim a Medallion if they push it all the way to 10. On the downside, if a Track gets reduced too far, it can add Attacks to Fronts or turn off the Morale Bonus, which prevents all players from being able to use their Tableaus, as illustrated below. So even the non-Communist players have reasons not to drive Soviet Support to the absolute basement, and this is true of all the non-Government Tracks. These Triggers are one-time effects, so when they trigger they are covered with a Blank marker and won’t be triggered a second time (unless the Blank marker is removed by a special card effect or the Archives Medallion).

Grant: What are the Medallions?

Alex: There are 9 different Medallions in Land and Freedom. Three of these provide an immediate boost, like gaining 7 Hero points instantly (Valor); the other Medallions provide an ongoing, permanent upgrade, like the ability to add extra Strength to the Fronts (Strategy), or the aforementioned Archives Medallion, which lets a player spend a Hero point to remove a Blank marker from a Track once per turn. Each game, there are 5 Medallions available on the board (the others remain in the box) for increased replayability.

When a player maxes out one of their Tracks, for example the Moderates increasing Foreign Aid to 10, they choose one of the available Medallions to acquire. The Medallion is not replaced. This creates an incentive for players to rush their political Tracks to grab a Medallion before the other players can take it. By extension, it also provides extra motivation for players to reduce other player’s Tracks and keep their ambitions in check.

Grant: What is the makeup of each of the player card decks?

Alex: Of the 18 cards in each player’s deck, 12 have only 1 Action Point (AP); 5 have 2 AP, and each deck has one Leader card with 3 AP. The amount of AP reflects how strong the card is, and AP can be used on your turn or in the Final Bid for Glory at the end of the game. For this reason, the Events on the higher-value cards are significantly stronger as well to make it a difficult decision whether to burn a card for its Event or keep it in your hand or deck.

Naturally, the discrepancy between stronger and weaker cards provides reason for players to draw more cards and cycle through their decks faster. Like in deck builder games, trashing weaker cards is helpful, so one strategy could be to burn 1-AP cards in Year 1 by playing them for their Events, thus strengthening your deck for the later Years. Of course, the danger of this is falling behind early by waiting too long to break out the big guns.

Grant: How did you decide on the number of cards in the decks?

Alex: There are four turns per Year, and three Years in the game, so the maximum number of cards a player could play would normally be 12. In addition, they can use up to 3 cards for their Final Bid for Glory. 18 seemed the right number to limit the redundancy of playing the same cards multiple times, preserving the importance of cycling through your deck, while also ensuring each game is varied by seeing a different starting hand every time.

Each of the 3 Fascist decks also contains 18 cards, to cover a wide range of history and greatly increase replayability, since each game you will experience at most 4 of those 18 each Year.

Grant: How do players use the cards during the game?

Alex: A card can be played either for its Event, in which case all of its Event text is utilized and the card is trashed (returned to the game box), or added to the player’s Tableau and played for its Action Points and possible Morale Bonus. The Morale Bonus allows a player to choose 1 icon on their current card to activate and multiply that effect by the number of times they have that icon in their Tableau. Playing for the Event generally gives a big short-term value, while playing to the Tableau is a slower, longer-term build-up that can result in powerful turns later in the Year.

At the end of each Year, cards from players’ hands and Tableaus will be moved to their discard pile to eventually cycle back into their deck and potentially be drawn again. However, a player gets to keep cards in their hand and Tableau equal to the current Year; 1 card in each at the end of Year 1, and 2 in each at the end of Year 2. So in later years, players’ Tableaus will naturally be stronger and they will have more cards in hand as well.

Grant: Can you give us examples of each of the card types and discuss their uses?

Alex: On the right is the Buenaventura Durruti card. This is the Leader of the Anarchists, so the most powerful card in that deck:
If the player wanted to burn this card for its Event, they would get an immediate boost in basically every area – add Strength to a Front, lift Collectivization and Liberty, undercut the Government, and gain a Hero point. It would be a big move, but because they played the Event, they’d permanently remove Durruti from the deck. Since this is their only 3 AP card, that may or may not come back to bite them in the Final Bid for Glory at the end of the game, described below.

The other option would be to play this card to their Tableau as in the above image. If they did, they could decide to use the 3 Action Points on any one area of the board – add 3 Strength to a Front, for example, or get +3 Liberty. They could even use the AP to turn on both Bonuses – Morale and Teamwork (this would be wasting 1 AP).

If the Morale Bonus is on, playing to the Tableau also allows the player to activate one icon on the Durruti card and multiply this by the number of cards that have this icon in their Tableau. So if they want to add Strength to a Front, they can do this because Durruti has the Republican Strength icon. If this were the only card in their Tableau with that icon, they could add +1 to any Front. However, as in the above example, if they already had 3 other cards with that same Strength icon, they could add +4 Strength to a Front as their Morale Bonus. Alternatively, they could choose to add +3 Liberty or +2 Collectivization using the cards arranged here. This illustrates how tableau-building can be quite effective through set collection and a little bit of planning.

Here are cards from the other decks to compare. Abraham Lincoln Brigade from the Communist deck and Battle of Guadalajara from the Moderate deck.

Grant: What is the purpose of the Bag of Glory? How do players manipulate this bag?

Alex: If players defeat the Fascists, the winner of Land and Freedom will be the one with the most Glory. Player tokens are drawn from the Bag of Glory at the end of each Year, and another Glory point will be scored by the Final Bid as described below. One token is drawn at the end of Year 1, two at the end of Year 2, and five at the end of Year 3. The player with the most Glory wins. If there is a tie, the Initiative player will break it (Initiative breaks all ties).

Obviously, to give yourself the best chance at victory, you want to put as many of your tokens into the Bag of Glory as possible. The main way to do that is by holding the Initiative. The Initiative player gets to add one of their tokens to the bag at the end of every turn, and again at the end of every Year (so the last turn of each Year counts double). The only other way to add a token to the bag is through the Subterfuge Medallion.

To make sure the odds of winning scale at a nice rate according to how dominant a player has been in the game, I learned how to use the statistical modeling program R and applied it to every possible distribution of the Bag of Glory. It turns out that even a slight lead in number of tokens produces a quite significant advantage in terms of likelihood of victory. I’m happy about that. No player is totally out of it until the last turn, but the player who played the best has a substantially better chance of claiming victory.

Grant: What are the Morale and Teamwork Bonuses? How are these useful?

Alex: The Morale bonus, as shown, allows players to activate the icons on their cards when playing to their Tableaus. If you’re pursuing a strategy of tableau-building, then the Morale bonus is essential. Fascist cards will sometimes turn off the Morale bonus because of failed Tests, and Morale will also be turned off whenever any of the Tracks falls to 0. Unlike other Triggers, these 0 spaces don’t get covered by Blank markers, so Morale could be lost multiple times from the same Track bottoming out.

The Teamwork bonus improves the war effort against the Fascists by encouraging working together on the Fronts. When a player adds Strength to a Front, they place one of their player tokens in the Front to indicate their contribution this turn. If a second (or third) player adds their token to the same Front, they trigger the Teamwork bonus, which adds an additional +1 Strength to that same Front. The Teamwork bonus can also be lost from Fascist cards.
Either bonus, if turned off, can be turned back on in a few ways. First, there are some Event effects that allow the player to turn on a bonus. Second, a player can use the Action Point(s) on their card to turn on bonuses. Finally, a player can spend 2 Hero points on their turn to turn on a bonus.

Grant: What are Hero Points and how are they used?

Alex: Hero points are the currency in Land and Freedom. They are acquired at the Fronts by performing heroic deeds for the Republican war effort, and can then be spent to further players’ political objectives.

The three main ways to get Hero points (HP) are: raising a Front to a positive value, thus giving the Republic control of that Front (1 HP), contributing to succeeding on this turn’s Fascist Test (2 HP), and contributing to Victory on a Front by lifting it up to +10 (3 HP). There are also various card effects and two Medallions that can provide Hero points to a player.

Hero points are valuable for the flexibility they provide. They can be spent on a player’s turn – before, during, or after they play their card. Hero points can be spent to draw cards from your deck, activate certain Medallions, turn on bonuses, and even move Tracks either up or down. The cost of moving a Track depends on the Track: Soviet Support and Foreign Aid can be moved for 2 HP, while Liberty and Collectivization cost 3, and Government costs 4 HP to budge. There is no limit to how many Hero points a player can spend on their turn. However, they are component limited, so if people start hoarding them, the supply could run out. That said, some Event effects allow players to steal Hero points from others, plus some Fascist cards will target the player with the most Hero points, so there is incentive to make use of them when you have them.

The design of the Hero point icon (by José Ramón Faura) is based on the “Laureate Badge of Madrid”, which “was the highest military award for gallantry of the Second Spanish Republic.” It was created on 25 May 1937 to honor those who served heroically in the defense of Madrid, successfully protecting the capital from the Fascist advance early in the war.

Grant: What is the general Sequence of Play?

Alex: Each turn begins with the Fascist card being revealed, Attacks added to the Fronts, and any other immediate effects. The players then take their turns. Each player simultaneously selects one card from their hand to play this turn. They don’t need to decide how they’re going to use that card (i.e. playing it for its Event or adding it to their Tableau), but they must place their selected card face-down on the table to indicate they are ready. Once everyone’s card is locked in, the Initiative player reveals their card and takes their turn. In any order, they play their card and can spend Hero points. Play then passes to the next player in turn order (In Years 1 and 3, play proceeds in a clockwise direction; Year 2 is counter-clockwise).

After all three players have finished their turns, the Fascist Test is resolved. If the Test was succeeded, contributors receive 2 Hero points and the reward is unlocked; if the Test was failed, no Hero points are awarded and the punishment is meted out. The last step is the Initiative player adding one of their tokens to the Bag of Glory for a job well done! It’s quite normal for Initiative to move between players multiple times during a single turn, but holding it at the end of the turn is what really counts.

Grant: How is the final turn of the game different? What is the Final Bid for Glory?

Alex: After the Fascist card is revealed but before players take their final turn, there is a Final Bid for Glory. Each player chooses up to 3 cards from their hand as their final bid. These cards will not be played; their Action Points (AP) will be totaled for the final bid – the player who bid the most AP wins the bid. They get to add one of their player tokens directly to Glory, bypassing the bag. It’s an instant Glory for the end score. The bid cards are then discarded and the final turn of the game proceeds as normal with each player choosing a card from their hand to play.

The Final Bid gives players an alternative way to score without Initiative. It also provides an incentive for players to manage their decks to access their higher-AP cards in Year 3. This makes it viable to play 1 AP cards, even if you have better cards in hand, because you can save those to win the Final Bid. Of course, it’s important to keep an eye on what cards your rivals are playing, trashing, or keeping in their tableaus. This could give you important information about how hard you need to push for the Final Bid, and whether you can get away with slamming down your Leader card for a big splashy turn without necessarily sacrificing your chance to win the Final Bid.

Grant: How do players win the game?

Alex: At the end of the final turn, players must win the war by holding 3 Fronts out of 4 for the Republic with a +1 or better value. If this has not been achieved, all players lose the game regardless! But if the war has been won, it is then time to determine who gets the Glory.

First, as with the end of every Year, the Initiative player adds 2 tokens to the Bag of Glory. Then players draw the final 5 tokens from the Bag to score. Whichever player has the most tokens in Glory (Initiative breaks ties) wins the game and decides the agenda for a victorious Spain!

Grant: What type of an experience does the game create?

Alex: The best experience in Land and Freedom is a 3-player game, where each turn there are 3 people who know they have to work together but whose loyalty is divided by a number of strategic considerations, some immediate and some long-term. Deciding when to contribute to the Fronts and when to hold back becomes a matter of negotiation, appeals to solidarity, and half-hearted chastisements that barely disguise a player’s own jealous ambitions. These tensions exist all game, but escalate as opportunities for achievement become scarcer and the Fascist cards escalate to build a potentially overpowering threat. In playtests, players have enjoyed engaging with their faction’s historical role and the mechanics generated lots of fun table-talk and strategizing.

That said, I have created “bot” rules for the three factions, so the game can be played with 1 or 2 players as well. I kept these “non-player” rules as simple as possible so they can be administered by any player and they fit neatly on the back of the player aids. The non-players are formidable rivals, so don’t take them lightly if you play with them!

Grant: What are you most pleased about with the design?

Alex: Ryan Heilman (Brave Little Belgium) and Steve from Blue Panther have been great to work with in the development and they’ve done an amazing job in allowing me to realize my vision for this game.

Honestly, the most pleasing thing is all the positive feedback I’ve gotten from players who seem to really enjoy the game, and particularly when people get excited because this game covers the Spanish Civil War in a way that almost no other game does, with revolution and political struggles front and center. It’s enormously validating that I wasn’t the only one out here who saw the need for this game to exist and wanted to play it!

Grant: What other designs are you working on?

Alex: All of my games are designed to empower players to see possibilities for regular people to make positive change in the world. Many of them cover history in a way that hasn’t been addressed. For example, I have a design about John Brown’s quest to end slavery in the United States in the 1850’s. Tentatively called Harper’s Ferry, this is a cooperative campaign game with legacy-light mechanics that follows John Brown from Bleeding Kansas to his fateful raid into Virginia, and emphasizes the role of radical abolitionists who aren’t very well-known but who sacrificed tremendously to the cause of freedom.

I have another design called Hammer and Sickle covering the Russian Civil War in a way that is quite different from Land and Freedom, while retaining the “fragile alliance” tension – there are four factions, two on the Revolutionary alliance and two on the Counter-Revolutionary alliance. The exciting thing about this game is its strong asymmetry between the different factions while retaining a simple ruleset.

Finally, I have a small cooperative card game called Strike, which is about co-workers organizing their workplace to go on strike. That one is inspired more by current events in the U.S., such as the Amazon Labor Union.

All of these games are either signed or in the hands of a publisher, so hopefully you’ll see them out in the real world in the not-too-distant future! People can follow my design process on Twitter and Instagram, where I’m also highlighting the history behind the various game components.

Thanks so much for the great questions! I appreciate everything you guys are doing to promote the hobby and the history.

Thanks for your time in answering our questions Alex. I look forward to getting a look at this game and seeing how it comes out based on the history of the conflict. I also am looking forward to your other designs in the pipeline.

If you are interested in Land and Freedom: The Spanish Revolution and Civil War, you can read more about the game on the Blue Panther blog on their website at the following link:

The game can be ordered for $60.00 from the Blue Panther LLC website at the following link: